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Editoriale / «Bdl» compie cinquant'anni

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Il QE della Banca Centrale Europea fra politica monetaria, politica economica e dinamiche dei mercati finanziari internazionali

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Il QE della Banca Centrale Europea fra politica monetaria, politica economica e dinamiche dei mercati finanziari internazionali

The sovereign debt crisis has to be seen, at least to a certain extent, as a consequence of the financial crisis of 2008, and of the subsequent choice of sovereign states to avoid the collapse of the international financial system by refinancing it through their debt. This perspective sheds an interesting light on the ECB’s current course of action in managing the consequences of the euro crisis. Prevented from directly financing Members States’ debt (no-bail out clause), and therefore unable to play the role of lender of last resort for the public sector, as national central banks do, the ECB has conceived a set of non-conventional measures (OMT – Outright Monetary Transactions) that have given rise to a vast debate and some opposition. This choice is currently enacted through the so-called Quantitative Easing (QE), a vast plan for buying public debt securities on secondary markets, thus injecting monetary liquidity through the banking sector. The practical aspects of such an intervention, however, raise doubts both in terms of efficiency and appropriateness, since trusting private markets and favouring speculation does not seem to be the best way to tackle the ongoing crisis, which is, inter alia, the product of the supremacy of the private over the public.

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La governance economica nella strategia Europa 2020: una socializzazione del semestre europeo contro ogni previsione?

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La governance economica nella strategia Europa 2020: una socializzazione del semestre europeo contro ogni previsione?

This article analyzes how EU social objectives and policy coordination have been integrated into the Union’s emerging post-crisis architecture of economic governance.  The authors argue that, since 2011, there has been a partial but progressive ‘socialization’ of the ‘European Semester’ of policy coordination, in terms of an increasing emphasis on social objectives and targets in the EU’s priorities and country-specific recommendations; an intensification of social monitoring, multilateral surveillance, and peer review; and an enhanced role for social and employment actors. This can be understood not only as EU institutions’ response to rising social and political discontent among European citizens with the consequences of post-crisis austerity policies, but also as a product of reflexive learning and creative adaptation on the part of social and employment actors: another form of ‘socialization’.

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EU Citizenship and Money: A Liaison Dangereuse? International and EU Legal Issues Concerning the Selling of EU Citizenship

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EU Citizenship and Money: A Liaison Dangereuse? International and EU Legal Issues Concerning the Selling of EU Citizenship

The pressure exerted by the economic and financial crisis has led EU actors to reshape the way in which some of the most relevant features of EU law are interpreted and applied. A significant example of such a "resilient approach" is given by the EU citizenship regime, which has revealed a Janus-faced attitude vis-à-vis the crisis. On the one hand, the contents of EU citizenship—and in particular the right to free movement—have been considered by some EU countries as a threat to their state budget. On the other hand, some EU countries have used the EU citizenship regime as a tool to help them face the budget constraints brought on by the crisis. A clear example of the latter attitude is represented by the investor and citizenship schemes that have recently been adopted by Cyprus and Malta, where EU citizenship is reshaped as a "commodity" that can be sold—subject to certain conditions—by Member States. This article tries to shed light, from a legal point of view, on the practice of selling EU citizenship. After a short illustration of the schemes involved and the reactions they have provoked from EU institutions (notably, the European Parliament and European Commission), this contribution will consider possible limits to the selling of EU citizenship: first it will assess possible limits under international law, and then it will consider the specific obligations arising out of EU law. The article closes with a summary of the author's main findings.

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Alla ricerca dell’euroscetticismo sui social media: un confronto tra 12 Stati membri in occasione delle elezioni europee 2014

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Alla ricerca dell’euroscetticismo sui social media: un confronto tra 12 Stati membri in occasione delle elezioni europee 2014

The present paper adopts a modern technique of sentiment analysis to analyze the comments published on social media concerning four types of EU related policies: austerity, labour policies, fiscal union and banking union. In the process the paper compares judgments made by public opinion in 12 different EU Member States. This analysis allows us to build an index of online Euroscepticism and shows that criticism is markedly higher on the topic of austerity, whereas European public opinion seems more favourable to the banking union. Online Euroscepticism is lower in Germany and in new Members States, and such index is correlated with the trust in European Union measured through traditional survey data.

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