The so-called “liberal order” theoretical approach to international relations is currently put into question by the emergence of new national powers, new international or supranational actors, the privatization of violence, new conflicts for natural resources, whose possible scarcity in a near future is acutely and widely perceived.
The weakening of the national State is accompanied by a bitterly felt loss of influence by traditional international organizations, such as NATO, the UN, the WTO, the EU etc. There is a growing re-nationalization of conflicts. At the same time multiple phenomena – such as population migrations, climate change, borderless communication technologies, the internationalization of financial markets, terrorist threats – call for a coordinated response from States and societies across the world.
The very foundations of national citizenship are put into question: human rights risk being the first casualty in these new declared and undeclared wars. A liberal answer is sought for, which should reconcile individual rights and collective decision-making.