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Abstract disponibile solo in lingua inglese
According to many scholars, the rapid decline of Marxist thought is tied to the recent collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe. The author sets out to show that this kind of explanation is both inadequate and misleading. In fact, several Marxist-oriented philosophers began to question the very foundations of Marxism already in the Sixties, and since then doubts have increased constantly. If we wish to understand this rapid decline, it is necessary to consider Karl Marx's philosophical anthropology which, despite many opinions to the contrary, is common to both his juvenile and mature works. In Marx's writings the limits of human rationality are never mentioned, and socialist man – the "new man" – appears as a sort of god on earth capable of achieving anything by pure willpower. The author argues that the Utopian character of Marx's socialism relies primarily on his superhuman conception of man. The Utopian character of the communist political and social programmes is, therefore, the natural consequence of over pretentious philosophical anthropology.