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The author argues that in the 1980s a European approach to security existed and that it contributed significantly to the ending of the arms race and the Cold War. The question now is whether there exists a specific European perspective for the urgent security issues of today: namely, terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in particular. Evangelista believes that a European approach effectively exists to these questions, all the more evident if compared with the policies of the United States and Russia, whose governments have set themselves the task of fighting terrorism by declaring war and attacking Afghanistan, Iraq and Chechnya. As many countries do in wartime, they have limited the freedom of their citizens for the sake of security, but their policies have failed to achieve any great success. It has become a commonplace to say that Europe tackles terrorism differently, preferring to strengthen legality and collaboration between intelligence services than to wage war. Albeit correct, such a response ultimately opens up new issues. In Europe, the strengthening of legislative measures against those suspected of terrorist activities triggers debate about immigration and relative policies. The author concludes that Europe’s success or otherwise in the fight against terrorism will depend largely on how it handles its relationship with immigrants, a field in which Europeans themselves may have something to learn from the United States and Russia.