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After 1989. Multilateralism and the challenges of the new world
In the post-1989 years, the dominant rhetoric was all about disorder – from the ‘clash of civilisations’ to ‘back to the future’. Actually, following the end of bipolarism, the international system has always been unipolar from the structural point of view, i.e. of the distribution of power, whereas, in terms of the rules of the game, it has been characterised by an attempt to first extend and then revise multilateralism. In retrospect, an attempt to change the rules of the game might be traced to the events that followed the attack of September 11. It was only from that day that the United States, guarantors of the previous world order, launched a project aimed at replacing it with a legibus solutus unilateralism. The present strategy of democratic transformation of the world, however, loses meaning and purpose, if it is not nested in a multilateral framework. Order, after all, might continue to be a repeat of itself.