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Foreign policy strategies are influenced by both interests and ideas. In view of the intellectual dominion of realism, political science has emphasised only the explaining power of interests. Four ideologies influence foreign policy. They are: realism/nationalism, liberalism, constructivism and neo-communism. Liberal diplomacy follows Wilsonian values, based on the guarantee of national self-determination, on the relative conception of peace, and on the subordination of the economic motivation of foreign policy to political values such as democracy and respect of human rights. In Italy, during the 1990s, the two prevailing trends were those of the conservative right and the constructivist left, in both security and economic foreign policy, and liberalism was far from being applied. It is now possible, however, to identify a coherent strategy of liberal diplomacy at all the three levels of foreign policy: bilateral, mini/lateral (within NATO and the EU) and multilateral (within UNs). It is based on the withdrawal of diplomatic, economic and institutional support to authoritarian regimes, on participation in so-called humanitarian interventions and on the reform of the Security Council according to cultural criteria to deprive repressive states of the right of veto.