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After analysing the possibility of citizen participation in European representative institutions (see the first part of this essay in the previous issue of Biblioteca della libertà), the author analyses the different concepts of citizenship in the literature, comparing them to the real model of citizenship promoted by the European integration process. The political and social rights of citizenship guaranteed by the European Union tend to be fragile. In fact, the European elections fail to be politically significant and attract a low turnout, lobbying and interest pressure are dominated by business (especially big business), transparency and public access to documents continue to be insufficient, and, even if the European Court of Justice has played a central political role in shaping the Community, the evidence shows that, in the vast majority of cases, it is business that exploits the legal process to further augment the political advantage it already possesses. On the other hand, the promoters of causes of public interest encounter serious difficulties whenever they apply to the Court. In conclusion, far from reaching the goal of a new European citizenship, the integration process has brought about a constant disempowerment of citizens, precisely in so far as it has reduced the scope of national parliaments without granting adequate compensation in terms of participatory rights.