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This essay assesses the cognitive scope and methodological importance of some of the results of game theory in an attempt to understand how our social norms have emerged and evolved, especially those which incorporate certain widespread trends towards justice and cooperation. In the last thirty years, the question has been addressed within the conceptual framework of game theory by scholars of the most diverse disciplinary provenance with outstanding results. The first section describes some of the hypotheses elaborated by Brian Skyrms on the basis of the exciting new development better known as evolutionist game theory. The second discusses other significant results vis-à-vis the genesis and evolution of social norms, while the third addresses connected methodological problems. The fourth lists some of the possible implications of such research for political philosophy. The fifth and final section reports significant points of contact between the game theory approach and the social theory approach of Friedrich von Hayek.