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One of the most striking features of Weber’s writings on religion is the frequency with which he uses the word rationality. This derives from the metatheory on which he bases his interpretative method. According to this theory, the meaning an individual attributes to his beliefs should be seen as the main cause thereof. Weber’s sociology of religion owes its strength to this theoretical framework. His ‘rational’ conception of religious beliefs does not imply that these beliefs are the fruit of reasoning, but that, if they are transmitted by socialisation, they have to appear well-founded to the player in question, if he or she is to accept them. These principles inspire Weber’s writings on magical beliefs, animism, the great religions, the diffusion of monotheism and theodicy, or world disenchantment. He shows that religious thinking seeks coherence and tends to verify and falsify religious dogmas by comparing them with observable facts. He develops a complex version of evolutionism and explains the irreversibility of which the history of religions has been a witness, but he also avoids all forms of fatalism. He rejects all recourse to depth and causalist psychology, since rational psychology is the only one compatible with the notion of ‘comprehension’. He analyses the evolution of religious ideas, hypothesising that it responds to the same mechanisms as the evolution of ideas in other domains, such as law, economics or science.