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Right from his first work on the science of finance, Il carattere teorico dell’economia finanziaria (The Theoretical Character of Financial Economics), Antonio De Viti de Marco distinguished between two state models: the “absolute” model whereby power was the exclusive monopoly of a single class, and the “cooperative” one in which, thanks to the free competition of social groups, each class could achieve power but, having achieved it, remained under the continuous control of the community. In the first case, the ruling class was also the consumer class and consumption was guaranteed by the systematic dispossession of the wealth of the rest of the population: that is to say the tax-paying class. In the second, instead, the same mechanism was made possible by the continuous alternation between ruled and rulers, hence the coincidence of the disutility of collection, on the one hand, and the utility of services received, on the other. But the question of the equitable sharing of fiscal yields and their use also arose in the “cooperative” state. According to De Viti de Marco, the failure to solve the problem provoked the political crisis of the late nineteenth century, when “producer-consumers” rebelled against the monopolist state.